The name "Mesolithic" comes from two separate words, Mesos=Middle and Lithos=Stone. Mesolithic Age is a period of transition from Old Stone Age to the New Stone Age. Some scholars think that this period should be included in the Epi-Paleolithic Age. There is not much significant change from Paleolithic Age. When climatic conditions began to change in the Mesolithic period, animals and humans were forced to adopt themselves to new environment and conditions. Animals became smaller in size and faster than before, so human had to develop his stone tools and weapons in a lighter and more practical form. Hunting and the collecting of plants continued to be the main supply of food, but the human began to store his food in storages for later consumption. We see, in comparison with Paleolithic age, more tools and weapons which were made of bones and wood and also some other personal ornamentation and daily use items such as combs. One of the most interesting usages of stone of this period is what is called Microliths that are small tools made from Obsidian and flints. Domestication of Animals is the main development of this period; the Dog was domesticated during the Mesolithic Age. From the wall paintings, we understand that the artistic qualifications of this period are almost equal to preceding Old Stone Age, and a little level of development was achieved.
Most of the Mesolithic dwellings are located in Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, Thrace and western Black Sea region. The caves discussed in previous section, have provided much evidence of Mesolithic life as well. In addition, Sarklimagara cave in Gaziantep region, Baradiz cave from Burdur area and open air settlements and cemeteries of Sogut Tarlasi, Biris near Bozova and Urfa are the major Mesolithic sites.